But he was powerless to strengthen discipline in the army.
The rural population was extremely dissatisfied with the violence of the soldiers and the local administration. The Roman Senate announced the overthrow of Maximinus. Soon, at the request of troops and the plebs, Gordian III was elected emperor. Upon learning of the events in Rome, Maximinus marched on the city with troops, but during the failed siege of Aquileia was killed by his soldiers.
Gordian III became sole ruler. He marched against the Persians who invaded Mesopotamia, but he did not have to end the war with the Persians: he was killed. Mark Julius Philip I (244-249), nicknamed the Arab for his origin, was proclaimed emperor. And Philip made peace with the Persians, after which the Romans retained Little Armenia and Mesopotamia, and returned to Rome, where he was recognized by the Senate.
The foreign policy position of the empire was difficult: barbarians advanced along almost the entire northern border. The troops were not sufficiently disciplined, each army tried to nominate its own candidate for the imperial throne. Philip managed to defeat several contenders for imperial power, but in the battle with Decius, whose troops in Moesia proclaimed him emperor, he was killed. Gaius Messius Trajan Decius (249-251) did not lie with those emperors who sought to restore the old Roman customs and system. This probably explains the persecution of Christians, during which many adherents of the new religion died.
After the death of Decius, several emperors changed. Publius Licinius Valerianus (253-260) and his son Gallienus (253-268), whom he made co-ruler, were the longest to retain power. Valerian was a supporter of ancient Roman principles. During his reign, Christians were also persecuted.
The situation of the empire under Valerian was even more tense than under his predecessors. Germanic tribes (Franks and Alemanni) crossed the Rhine, the Goths crossed the Danube, the African provinces were attacked by Moorish tribes, and the Persians in the east.
The latter occupied Armenia, invaded the borders of the Roman Empire and captured Antioch. Valerian recaptured Antioch, but in a battle with the Persians, who laid siege to Edessa, was taken prisoner, where he died.
After Valerian was captured by the Persians, his son Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ became sole ruler of the empire. Gallienus was an educated, energetic man, who sought to protect the state from external danger and restore its internal power. But he was powerless to strengthen discipline in the army. It was also difficult to restrain the onslaught of barbarians in the west and Persians in the east. He had to wage war with both the usurpers and the barbarians: the Franks and Alemanni, the Goths, and others.
The Bosporan Empire ceased to be an ally of Rome. The ties of the Roman provinces with the Northern Black Sea coast were weakened, raids on the Roman Empire were being prepared on the Bosporus, and the new Bosporus rulers provided ships for the barbarians who invaded the empire. their crossed ships the Black Sea, the Goths, in alliance with other Pontic peoples, made devastating raids on cities along the European and Asia Minor coasts: Ephesus, Athens, and the Greek cities of Corinth and Sparta.
In 268, Gallienus was killed by conspirators, and Marcus Aurelius Claudius was proclaimed emperor. He managed to reunite the empire. He died of the plague that raged in the empire for several years.
He was replaced by a brother who could not stay in power. The emperor was a prominent general Lucius Domitius Aurelian (270-275). Continuing the policy of his predecessor, Aurelian finally expelled the Goths from Pannonia and repulsed the attacks of the Alemanni, who invaded Italy. Aurelian carried out reforms in an effort to restore the internal power of the Roman state.
However, the republican institutions, which have retained some significance since the time of the Antonines, have now lost their significance. Aurelian, the first of the Roman emperors, called himself “lord and god”, that is, he neglected the traditions of democracy. In Rome, on the Field of Mars, was built the temple of the Sun – the highest deity, the supreme patron of the empire.
Old shrines were restored in Rome. It was an attempt to find a single religion for the world empire, to establish a shaky imperial power.
Barbarian invasions posed a great danger not only to the provinces but also to Italy. To secure the capital, Rome under Aurelian was surrounded by strong walls. The emperors did everything to restore the unity of the empire, but to do so within the former borders failed. Rome had to abandon Dacia, whose indigenous people had never tolerated foreign rule.
Aurelian moved his troops to the East, but was killed by soldiers during the campaign. This time the army made it possible to appoint a senate emperor, who elected the old senator Mark Claudius Tacitus (275-276), but he failed to maintain his authority among the soldiers and soon died.
After Tacitus, several emperors succeeded to the imperial throne. And when the throne was taken by Gaius Valerius Aurelius Diocletian, the era of the late Roman Empire began.
On the borders of the empire, barbaric tribal formations intensified, the onslaught of which the Romans could not always resist. In these circumstances, the army acquired special significance. The troops were to defend and guard the empire and at the same time be the support of the government. But the events of the II century. showed the role that the army can play in the appointment and removal of emperors. The army began to accept natives of the provinces.
Service in the legions often became hereditary. Legionnaires were bound not so much by military discipline, which was declining everywhere and attempts to restore it that caused resistance, as by a special professional unity formed during many years of service, the conditions of camp and camp life. When conditions were favorable were created, certain legions relinquished their subordination to the ruling monarch and proclaimed their protege emperor to occupy a privileged position in the empire.
Thus, in the II-III centuries. the empire was engulfed in a crisis, which manifested itself in the frequent change of emperors, internecine wars, the loss of provinces, and the weakening of the empire’s external power.
The state, led by emperors who were completely dependent on the legionnaires and did not have the support of the civilian population, did not fulfill its main function – the protection of slavery, and could not protect itself from external attacks.
The provinces of Rome became more economically independent of the center.
As a result of the crisis, the debt of the colonists increased, as payments to the owners of estates increased, and the state settled the captured barbarians on the lands left by the colonies.
Burden of crisis III st. affected primarily the exploited strata. As a result, their resistance increased. Its forms were different: the escape of the columns, the joint performances of peasants and slaves (for example, the Bagaud movement in Gaul).
This popular movement was one of the reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire.
Alekseev Yuriy Mykolayovych, Vertegel Andriy Hryhorovych, Kazakov Oleksandr Oleksiyovych. World History: Textbook. manual for students. higher education zakl .. – K.: Karavela, 2006. – 240s. Golovanov Serhiy Oleksandrovych, Dribnytsia Vitaliy Oleksandrovych. World History. History of the ancient world: Textbook. way. for 6 classes. – K .: Fahrenheit, 2000 .– 272p. Fedenko Panas. History of Italy: from the decline of the Roman Empire to recent times. – Lviv: Narodny Univ., 1936 .– 46p. World History: trial evaluation: [textbook]. – H.: Fact (editor of the magazine “Visnyk TIMO”), 2008. – 22p.
Neolithic revolution in primitive society. Abstract
In the VII millennium BC. BC comes to Europe “reproductive economy”
From the south of the Balkans, these impulses were directed to the northwest, north and northeast. In the middle of the 5th millennium on the territory of eastern Hungarian Transdanubia, Moravia, and Southwestern Slovakia, an original culture of linear-ribbon ceramics developed.
Carriers of this culture in the second half of V – early IV millennium BC. spread farming and livestock on waterways (Danube, Vistula, Elbe, Rhine, Dniester and Prut) to a huge area from the Maas (in the west) to the Dniester (in the east), from the Sava and Drava rivers (in the south ) to the Odra (in the north).
Settlements of bearers of linear-tape ceramics were concentrated near rivers. Wooden houses of frame-pillar construction were located at a distance of 15-20 m. The house was inhabited by one to several families. Cemeteries of this culture provide interesting material. In the burial inventory of men’s burials there are polished stone axes, products from non-native raw materials, handicrafts.
Farming in Europe was originally hoe. It turned out to be quite time consuming and unproductive. Small cattle also could not completely displace hunting. Only the appearance in the VII millennium BC. BC, some elements of arable farming and the primitive siege-fire complex and irrigation gave farmers the opportunity to gain certain advantages in obtaining food. It is then that the transition from a round to a rectangular shape of housing takes place, which indicates a steady trend towards full settlement, as this shape of housing made it possible to complete the necessary residential and commercial premises.
The transition to reproductive forms of management and increase the efficiency of economic results of people have led to changes in their lives and psychology. The land on which production took place acquired a new feature: it became not only an object but also the result of human labor. The nature of work has also changed. It required a greater level of cooperation and at the same time formed the specialization of production processes. The division of labor within the community became a necessary condition for its continued existence. There was also an inter-communal exchange.
Communities with a livestock profile exchanged products with agricultural or hunting-gathering products. The objects of exchange were handicrafts (ceramics, tools) and raw materials.
All this led to a modification of the concept of “property”. There is an understanding of the personal right to tools and household items and awareness of hereditary, collective right to land. Land ownership was characterized by a certain hierarchy: only the family could dispose of it, adult members had the right to own certain plots, and the family – only to use it. Personal property was inherited, taking into account this hierarchy.
The ancestral territory had a certain name and there were areas of general ancestral importance: a place for rituals, sanctuaries, sources of drinking water and raw materials, forest.